Wednesday, October 28, 2020





A. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of proper cooking techniques by preparing the kugels; thereby demonstrating that they know how to:

  1. Cook, drain, and rinse noodles.
  2. Caramelize sugar and oil.
  3. Measure and combine ingredients.
  4. Break, beat, and add eggs.
  5. Turn a kugel into a greased baking pan and bake.
B. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of the traditions regarding kugel by completing the final Sample Test.



1. As kugels take a very long time to bake, it is necessary to prepare them ahead of time so that the students can taste. Actual preparation time is fairly short.

2. Kugels freeze extremely well and can be frozen in a partially-baked state, defrosted, and finished at a later time as well. Do not freeze unless they have been baked somewhat firm.

3. This lesson includes recipes for two kugels and the class is divided into two groups, each making its own kugel.

4. Have water boiling at the beginning of class.


1. Keep an eye on the student that is stirring the caramelizing sugar in oil. The oil and sugar don't actually combine and the splashing of oil when stirring could do much damage. Also, once the sugar has begun to color, it darkens very quickly and should be watched carefully so that it doesn't burn. It is very important to have the noodles cooked, drained, rinsed, and ready to add as soon as the caramel begins to darken.

2. Watch carefully when adding the noodles to the hot oil mixture. It is a good idea to do this in a roomy pot because the oil will sizzle and sputter as the wet noodles are added.

3. It is an integral part of the Kugel Yerushalayim that the pepper be freshly ground. Do not make it with pre-ground pepper. It will not taste the same. In addition, the students enjoy taking turns using the pepper grinder.


A. Kugel Yerushalayim is a favorite recipe of the Hasidim of Mea Shearim in Jerusalem. This is a very unique community and because it is so ultra-orthodox, many of the problems that arise between secular and religious Israelis originate in this place. Women have been attacked for being dressed immodestly and for acting improperly when visiting this neighborhood. Movie theaters have been vandalized for opening on Shabbat, and kiosks selling pulpy magazines and newspapers have been bombed. A discussion of Mea Shearim might explore the students’ values regarding whether a neighborhood has the right to dictate a moral code to anyone who visits it. Would they tolerate what they would consider immorality on the streets outside their homes? In neighborhoods in the United States, people have banded together to get rid of drug dealers on their streets. Where should the line be drawn between sensitivity for a person 's moral code and infringement of that moral code on another person's rights?

B. On the lighter side, how many different types of kugels are the students familiar with? What different kinds of ingredients could be added to a kugel to make it interesting?

C. One kugel is milchige and one pareve. To observe kashrut, it is necessary to have both kinds so that one can choose the appropriate type to accompany a meal. Discuss how a milchige kugel might be part of different dairy menus and how a pareve kugel might be part of different meat menus.


  • 1-1b. fine egg noodles
  • 1-lb. medium egg noodles
  • 1/2 c. vegetable oil
  • sugar
  • salt
  • pepper mill with black peppercorns
  • 2 dozen eggs
  • 1 qt. milk
  • 1 pt. sour cream
  • small container creamed cottage cheese
  • non-stick spray
  • 1 foil lasagna pan
  • 1 foil roaster pan
  • 6 qt. dairy pot
  • 8 qt. dairy pot
  • mixer
  • 2 colanders
  • large spoons
  • measuring cups
  • sample kugels - milchige and Yerushalayim
  • serving knife
  • aluminum foil
  • dishwashing liquid
  • dishcloths
  • dishtowels
  • paper plates
  • plastic forks



Lukschen kugel is a traditional Shabbat dinner dish and can be served either hot, or at room temperature. Milchige, or dairy lukschen kugel is second only to cheese blintzes as a favorite dish during Shavuot. Kugel Yerushalayim is a recipe that was excerpted from a chapter on foods to celebrate Yom Ha’Atzmaut and Yom Yerushalayim. “This peppery kugel (a Yiddish word adopted into the Israeli vernacular) has become a trademark of the Hasidim in Mea Shearim—an ultra-Orthodox area of Jerusalem—and of nearby areas. In fact, preparation and distribution of the delicious noodle pudding are the means of support for a few of its older residents. Jerusalem kugel is served at many Israeli weddings and bar mitzvah celebrations, and even at state functions. The unusual recipe calls for caramelizing sugar in oil, to give the kugel a golden color and a subtly sweet taste that contrasts perfectly with the pepper.”10

 (GROUP 1)

  • 1 lb. fine egg noodles
  • 1/2 c. vegetable oil
  • 1/4 c. sugar
  • 1 t. salt
  • 3/4 tsp. freshly ground black pepper
  • 4 large eggs, beaten
  • non-stick cooking spray

1. In an approximately 6-quart pot, cook the noodles in boiling water according to the package directions. Drain them in a colander. Then rinse them with cool water and let them drain very well.

2. Dry the pot well; then put the oil and sugar into it. Stir the sugar in the oil over medium-low heat (they will not actually combine) for 5 to 10 minutes, or until the sugar melts and caramelizes, and turns a dark golden brown—the color of caramel candy.

3. Immediately add all the well-drained noodles to the pot, while stirring them very well, so the oil and caramelized sugar are evenly distributed. If any of the sugar solidifies into chunks, continue stirring the noodles over medium-low heat until the sugar melts. Remove the noodles from the heat and stir in the salt and pepper. Then let the noodle mixture cool for 10 to 15 minutes or until it is lukewarm.

4. Stir the beaten eggs completely into the noodles. Then turn out the mixture into a lasagna size pan that has been sprayed well with non-stick cooking spray.

5. Bake the kugel in a preheated 325-degree oven for 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hours, or until the top is golden and very crisp. Let the kugel cool for about 5 minutes before cutting it. 


  • 1-lb. medium egg noodles
  • 8 eggs
  • 3 c. milk
  • 1/2 pt. sour cream
  • 3 T. creamed cottage cheese
  • 1 c. sugar

1. In an approximately 6-qt. pot, cook the noodles in boiling water according to the package directions. Drain them in a colander. Then rinse them with cool water and let them drain very well.

2. While they are cooking, beat together the eggs, milk, sour cream, cottage cheese, and sugar.

3. Mix all ingredients together, and fold into a small roaster size pan which has been sprayed well with non-stick cooking spray.

4. Bake at 350 degrees for 1-3/4 hours, or until the top is golden and very crisp. Let the kugel cool for about 5 minutes before cutting it. 


10Text from Gloria Kaufer Greene, The Jewish Holiday Cookbook: An International Collection of Recipes and Customs (Published in the United States by Times Books, a division of Random House, Inc., New York, and simultaneously in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto, 1985), p. 307.

11Ibid Recipe for Kugel Yerushalayim.

Tuesday, October 27, 2020




A. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of proper cooking techniques by preparing the mandelbread; thereby demonstrating that they know how to:

  1. Grate orange rind.
  2. Juice an orange.
  3. Measure and sift flour.
  4. Beat eggs with an electric mixer.
  5. Cream sugar and oil in an electric mixer.
  6. Measure and combine ingredients.
  7. Pat dough into loaf shapes on a baking sheet.
  8. Slice baked loaves and rebake the cookies.

B. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of the Yiddish origins of these cookies
and the holiday for which they are particularly appropriate by completing the final Sample Test.



1. Make one batch ahead and leave in loaf form. This way, the students can have the experience of slicing the baked loaves, finishing the toasting part in the oven, and can still have time to taste the finished product. The cookies freeze very well if they need to be done far ahead.

2. Students finish the first set of loaves and then proceed to prepare the second batch of dough for the oven. If there are several classes, the loaves baked by the previous class can be sliced and sampled by the succeeding ones.

3. Several of the steps of the recipe can be proceeding at the same time. For example, the orange can be grated and juiced by one student while another is measuring and sifting flour and another is beating eggs and creaming in sugar and oil.

4. Another way to deal with the recipe for a rather large class would be to assign each student a number and let him/her perform that particular task.


1. A very small, fine grater is very handy to have for grating various citrus peels quickly and easily into many recipes. The only inconvenience is cleaning the peel out of the tiny holes. I store a cheap toothbrush along with the grater for cleaning out the last little bit of peel, and then when washing the grater, the toothbrush can be used again to clean it thoroughly. The flavor the fresh peel adds in certain recipes is far superior to that provided by the dehydrated peel that can be purchased. If you should decide to use prepared rind and juice, use 1 T. of dehydrated rind and 1/4 c. of orange juice.

2. Make sure there is room in the measuring cup for the orange juice to expand when the baking soda is added.

3. Use a large metal spoon when spooning dough onto baking sheet and clean it off periodically with a rubber spatula using each against the other to remove the dough that sticks.

4. Use the spatula against the bottom of the pan to help push the dough sideways into the proper shape before using hands.

5. Lift loaves carefully off the pan onto a cutting board with metal spatula before slicing and use a sharp, serrated knife to slice the loaves to avoid breaking off the edges.


A. “The story of Yiddish is closely tied to the story of Ashkenazi Jewry... The German Jews who migrated eastwards retained their language and developed it in relative isolation, until it became a distinct Germanic language, enriched by dialects of its own and with a uniquely Jewish resonance. Subsequent movements spread the language far beyond its historic homeland, and by 1939, it was estimated that there were over 10 million Yiddish speakers dispersed over the entire globe. The Holocaust and rapid linguistic assimilation have drastically reduced that figure, but Yiddish continues to be cherished by its devotees, and has recently begun to undergo a modest revival. The award of the Nobel Prize for literature to Isaac Bashevis Singer in 1978... drew attention to a continuing Yiddish literature which reposes on a long and significant tradition.”12 A consciousness-raising session about the nature of the Yiddish language might be in order with this lesson. With what Yiddish words are the students familiar, and how do they feel about using these words in their everyday language?

B. Do your students know any Yiddish-speaking people? What kind of background is the person from? How do they feel about the language when they hear it spoken by other people?

C. There are many variations of this recipe that can be made for Passover using cake meal, or matzoh meal, and potato starch. Since extracts containing grain alcohol are not permitted during Passover, other adaptations are necessary. Discuss with your students how our dietary laws influence our adaptations of recipes. Our dietary laws are what distinguish Jewish cuisine from other types of cuisine. Even though we have adapted our cooking to each of the lands we have inhabited, we have retained our unique cuisine because of our dietary laws and the symbolism we attribute to the many foods that are traditional for our holidays.


  • 3 eggs
  • 2 c. sugar
  • 3/4 c. oil
  • 1 t. baking soda
  • 1 navel orange
  • 4-1/2 c. all-purpose flour
  • 1 t. almond extract
  • 1 t. vanilla extract
  • 1 c. chocolate chips
  • 1 tsp. cinnamon
  • small grater
  • small knives
  • long sharp knife
  • juicer
  • sifter or sieve
  • electric mixer
  • measuring cups
  • measuring spoons
  • 2-11" x 17" jelly roll pans
  • metal spatula or turner
  • large mixing spoon



These light and appealing cookies appear in almost every Ashkenazic cookbook. They are known by many variations in spelling depending on how much Yiddish is included and the way it is transliterated into English. Some of these names are: mandlebroit, mandelbrot, mondlebrot, and mandelbread. There are as many variations in the recipe as there are in the names. Several characteristics, however, are common to all of them. The dominant flavoring always comes from nuts, usually almonds. Mandlen is the Yiddish word for almonds. Also, the dough is usually patted into long loaf shapes by hand to be baked. After this baking, the loaves are sliced and the slices laid out on the baking sheet to be baked again individually so that the cookies have a light, toasty consistency. They are usually pareve so that they can be eaten any time the desire for them strikes, and they last for a long time stored in an airtight tin at room temperature. They also freeze beautifully and take almost no time to defrost. If they do get a little stale, they can be retoasted in the oven and will be just as delicious. Almost any small tidbit can be added to the dough before the first baking so that there are as many variations as there are likes and dislikes. Some other additions to the recipe below might be: candied fruit; chopped dried fruit, such as apricots, dates, or peaches; raisins; nuts of any kind; flavored chips, such as peanut butter, or mint chocolate chip; your favorite candy bar chopped up, or any combination of these.

Another name for this type of cookie is kamish bread, or komish bread and seems to be a more accurate name for cookies that do not have a dominant almond flavor but are made the same way. In English, they are also called rusks instead of cookies to indicate that they are toasted and crunchy.

Whichever variation you prefer, the cookies are eaten all year around, but are considered particularly appropriate for Sukkot, and lend themselves beautifully for serving in the Sukkah because they are filled with fruits and nuts, symbols of the harvest.


  • 3 eggs
  • 1-1/2 c. sugar
  • 3/4 c. oil
  • 1 t. baking soda
  • 1 navel orange - juice and rind
  • 4-1/2 c. all purpose flour
  • 1 c. chocolate chips
  • 1 t. vanilla
  • 1 t. almond extract
  • 1 t. cinnamon in ½ c. sugar

1. Leaving orange whole, grate orange part of rind against small grater into a dish.

2. Cut orange in half and extract juice by pressing halves against a juicer and reserve.

3. Sift flour.

4. Beat eggs in electric mixer until frothy.

5. Cream in sugar and oil.

6. Dissolve baking soda in orange juice making sure that there is room in the cup for the juice to expand.

7. Add juice mixture to egg, sugar, and oil mixture.

8. Add almond and vanilla extracts, and grated rind.

9. Mix in flour, a cup at a time.

10. Stir in chocolate chips.

11. Divide dough into three parts and form into three loaves. This can be done by spooning large dollops of dough in three rows crosswise on an 11" x 17" ungreased jelly roll pan. When the dough is evenly divided, pat with your hands into loaf shapes approximately 3" wide x 10" long, thicker in the center and thinner at the edges. The dough is not as sticky as it appears to be on the spoon and will not stick to your hands if you just pat it lightly until smooth.

12. Sprinkle tops with cinnamon sugar.

13. Bake on rack in top third of the preheated 350-degree oven approximately 20 minutes, or until golden brown.

14. Cool slightly and cut loaves into diagonal 1/2-inch thin slices.

15. Arrange slices back on baking sheet, adding an additional baking sheet to accommodate all the slices.

16. Return to oven and toast 8 minutes.

17. Remove from oven and flip each cookie over and toast an additional 8 minutes on the other side.

Makes approximately 4 dozen cookies.


  • 2 lg. lemons juice and rind
  • 1 c. pine nuts
  • 2 t. anise seeds
  • 1 T. anise extract
  • plain sugar on top
Follow steps above for chocolate chip mandelbread.


12 N.R.M. de Lange, Atlas of the Jewish World (Oxford, England: Equinox Ltd., 1985), p. 120.





A. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of proper cooking techniques by preparing potato latkes; thereby demonstrating that they know how to:

  1. Break and whisk eggs with salt and pepper.
  2. Carefully heat vegetable oil to the proper temperature observing safety practices.
  3. Peel potatoes.
  4. Grate potatoes to the proper consistency using a food processor.
  5. Drain and squeeze liquid from grated potatoes.
  6. Carefully spoon potato batter into hot oil.
  7. Brown and turn the latkes over in the hot oil carefully.
  8. Remove the latkes from the oil properly.
  9. Drain the latkes properly.

B. The students will demonstrate their understanding of the techniques involved in working with potatoes and oil and the relationship of this recipe to the holiday of Hanukkah by completing the Sample Test at the end.



1. It is not necessary to do any preparation before beginning the recipe in class.

2. Try to set up a rotating production line so that as one group is peeling potatoes, another is getting the eggs ready, and another is watching the heating of the oil. As the potatoes are being grated, drained, and squeezed, the group that readied the eggs can be rinsing the utensils for the next batch and then can begin peeling potatoes again as the first potato peeling group gets the eggs ready. The group with the hot oil can fill into this triangle after the first batch of latkes are fried so that everyone tries his hand at all aspects of the production of the latkes.


1. It is absolutely imperative that the teacher be with the hot oil station at all times. The teacher should supervise as the work stations are being set up and explain what the students are to do, but his or her attention should be focused on observing safe practices when dealing with the hot oil. If the physical set-up of the kitchen or the size of the class requires the teacher to be a distance from the rest of the work stations, it would be advisable to have an assistant present to allow the teacher to focus in on keeping oil from splashing or spilling and causing injury.

2. A swivel blade vegetable peeler is very handy for peeling potatoes and causes less accidental injury than a knife.

3. It is convenient to peel the potatoes at the sink so that they can be rinsed easily when necessary.

4. Idaho potatoes are used because they are less watery than other types of potatoes and therefore give a better consistency in this recipe.


A. Foods fried in oil during Hanukkah are symbolic of the miracle of the oil which occurred when the Temple in Jerusalem was re-dedicated by Judah the Maccabee and his followers following its desecration three years earlier by the followers of the Syrian king, Antiochus. When the sacred Temple Menorah was rekindled during the re-dedication, only enough undefiled oil for one day could be found, but it continued to bum for eight days and nights until more purified oil could be obtained. Most students are familiar with lighting wax candles to celebrate the holiday, but may not be familiar with the type of hanukkiah that burns small pots of oil. If a hanukkiah of this type cannot be obtained to demonstrate, it can be fabricated by filling a pyrex glass bowl with water and pouring a thin (1/8-inch) coating of vegetable oil on top. The oil will float to the top as you pour. Cut some I-inch squares of heavy duty aluminum foil and poke a small hole in the center of each. Place a very short length of heavy cotton twine halfway through each hole and float each square on the oil: Light the wicks that protrude from the top of the foil squares with a match. They will burn by feeding on the oil. Ask the students how long they think the oil would burn before being consumed by the flames. How much oil would be needed to burn for 8 days?

B. Potato latkes are of Eastern European origin and were originally fried in rendered goose fat because early winter was the time when the geese which had been fattened all summer and fall were slaughtered. It is very rare to see potato latkes fried in goose fat today because of our understanding of the relationship between highly saturated fats and heart disease. How have other traditional Jewish dishes changed and evolved because of scientific discoveries about good nutrition?


  • 3 doz. eggs
  • 10 lbs. Idaho potatoes
  • 1 gallon vegetable oil
  • salt
  • pepper
  • sour cream
  • applesauce
  • 3 2-qt. bowls
  • wire whisk
  • food processor with grating disk and steel knife
  • 2 10-inch skillets
  • deep fat thermometer
  • several potato peelers
  • rubber spatulas
  • colander
  • metal teaspoons
  • metal forks
  • slotted spoons
  • roll of paper towels
  • small bowls for dipping applesauce and sour cream
  • dish cloths
  • dish towels
  • dishwashing liquid
  • potholders




Potato latkes are really very easy to make, but the secret to making good ones is in understanding the techniques involved in working with potatoes. I think that most people would agree that potato latkes are well-made when they are white and crispy, but when I catered, I encountered people who preferred them gray and soggy, “like Bubbie used to make.” These people had Bubbies who were not very good cooks, but nostalgia has a lot to do with what people like and dislike. Many recipes for potato latkes call for adding flour and baking soda to absorb the liquid that accumulates when the potatoes are grated. This recipe is a little different. No filler is added because the liquid is drained away.

Potatoes start to turn color as soon as they are peeled, so don't peel them until you have everything else ready. Cold water helps to slow the process of turning color, so as each potato is peeled, drop it into some cold water. Grating the potatoes makes them turn dark even faster than peeling and the liquid that accumulates when they are grated turns dark the fastest of all. Obviously, the secret to having white and crispy potato latkes is speed and organization. Therefore, try not to make a bigger batch of grated potatoes than you can fry immediately in one or two pans. Have the oil hot when the potatoes are ready so that they don't have a chance to sit around and turn color while waiting for the oil to heat up. If you need to make a lot of them, as I did when I was catering, just keep making fresh batches as you finish frying the previous batch. Don't try to peel and grate all the potatoes at one time and then have them sitting around turning gray while they wait to be fried. Once the latkes are fried and drained on paper towels, they freeze beautifully and can be reheated in a 350-degree oven, uncovered, in a single layer.

For this class, and if you want to make them hors d'oeuvres size, just use a heaping teaspoon to put them into the oil. If you want the regular size, use a larger spoon. The same techniques work if you want to make a potato kugel. Heat a small amount of oil in a pan in the oven and double the recipe for potato latkes. When the oil is the proper temperature, carefully pour in the potatoes and bake at the highest temperature your oven allows without broiling until the kugel is well browned.

Potato latkes are probably the most traditional of all the Hanukkah dishes, especially if you are of Eastern European descent. Long ago, Potatoes were very inexpensive and easy to grow and they kept well during the cold winter months. When oil was scarce and expensive, the potato latkes were fried in schmaltz, the rendered fat from geese or chickens, and served with gribbenes, the cracklings of skin that were left when the fat was rendered.


  • 2 large eggs
  • 1/2 t. salt
  • a few grindings of black pepper
  • 3 large or 4 small Idaho potatoes
  • (always use Idaho as the texture of the potatoes is important)
  • Vegetable oil for frying

1. Whisk the eggs with the salt and pepper in a large bowl and set aside.

2. Pour enough oil into a large skillet to come about 3/4-inches up the side. Begin heating the oil to 350 degrees on a deep-fat thermometer. KEEP AN EYE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF OIL. OIL THAT IS OVERHEATED CAN CATCH FIRE AND BURN DOWN YOUR HOUSE! Once the oil is the correct temperature, if you are not putting food into it, take it off the heat temporarily.

3. Peel potatoes and drop into cold water as they are finished.

4. Grate potatoes through the grating disk of the food processor.

5. Turn out into a bowl and replace the disk with the steel knife.

6. Pour grated potatoes back into bowl and pulse approximately 8 times to chop a little finer. This process gives almost the same consistency as the ones that are grated by hand.

7. Pour potatoes into colander in the sink and squeeze them with your hand to remove as much of the liquid as possible.

8. Pour potatoes into the egg mixture and stir.

9. When oil has reached the correct temperature (the first latke should sizzle as soon as it touches the oil), slide portions of the batter into it by the heaping teaspoonful.

10. Fry until the bottoms and edges begin to turn golden brown, then flip over and fry the top side the same way. While you are waiting, rinse everything that has come in contact with the potatoes in COLD water. Hot water cooks the potato starch onto the dishes and utensils and makes them harder to wash.

11. Once all the dishes and utensils are rinsed, you may begin preparing another batch (from Step 1) if you wish, so that when one batch comes out, another is ready to go in. The oil may be used for at least three batches. After a while it starts looking burnt and starts to foam up when you add the potatoes. If this happens and you plan to make more, start with a new pan of oil.

12. When the latkes are golden brown on both sides, remove them from the oil with a slotted spoon, allowing the excess oil to drip back into the pan. Drain on paper towels.

13. Serve hot with applesauce or sour cream or both. 


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A. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of proper cooking techniques by preparing slishkas; thereby demonstrating that they know how to:

  1. Prepare instant mashed potatoes.
  2. Measure and combine ingredients.
  3. Beat eggs.
  4. Knead dough.
  5. Roll dough with the hands into ropes.
  6. Cut dough ropes into lengths.
  7. Boil dough.
  8. Drain dumplings.
  9. Prepare a crumb coating.
  10. Toss the slishkas in the buttered crumbs.

B. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of the relationship of this dish to Jewish cooking by completing the final Sample Test.



  1. No preparation is required ahead of time for this recipe.
  2. There is a bit of a wait while the slishkas are boiling. If you wish to keep the students occupied during this time, you can save the preparation of the crumbs for this time and grind them in the food processor, or have them begin cleaning up.


  1. It is not necessary to use a mixer for this recipe. If one is available, it can be used.
  2. Keep surfaces well-floured to prevent sticking.
  3. Toss the slishkas in the crumb coating with a wooden spoon to keep from breaking them up.


A. This recipe is not heavy with symbolic meanings as are some of the others included in this course, but slishkas are remembered in certain quarters with a fondness and nostalgia particularly appropriate to memories of Bubbie’s kitchen. They belong to a category of old fashioned, homey, comfort foods that are rarely prepared in this age of frozen french fries. Ask your students if they have any special memories to share about foods prepared in their bubbies’ kitchens that may not be familiar to an assimilated American family. It may be a dish that they hated, too. Some other dishes not covered in this course that may fall into this category are: schav, petcha, gefilte fish, kishka, gribenes, to give but a few examples.


  • 2 boxes instant potato flakes or buds
  • boiling water
  • vegetable oil
  • salt
  • 1 dozen eggs
  • all-purpose flour
  • 2 sticks butter
  • stale bread for bread crumbs
  • potato chips
  • mixer
  • measuring cups
  • measuring spoons
  • knife
  • 6 to 8 qt. pot with steamer insert and lid
  • large skillet
  • mixing spoons
  • pot holders
  • serving bowl
  • small pot for boiling water
  • food processor
  • dishwashing liquid
  • dishtowels
  • dishcloths



Years ago, a favorite buffet selection at Ashkenazic Bar Mitzvahs was slishkas. They are buttery, crumb-coated potato dumplings that are served as a side dish. A very similar type of dish is probably more familiar and is the Italian favorite, potato gnocchi. Gnocchi, which means knuckles, are made from a similar dough that is pressed against a rough surface such as a coarse grater before they are cooked so that sauces will cling to them. Making slishkas is much more fun because it is reminiscent of that time in kindergarten when you made long snakes out of clay or play dough by rolling pieces between your fingers and the table. Every skill comes in handy eventually!

I’ve substituted instant potatoes for the mashed potatoes with which these are traditionally made because I find that the finished product is just about the same. Also, slishkas have always been coated with bread crumbs, but when I have leftover stale potato chips, I usually grind them up in the food processor and add them to leftover bread crumbs or matzoh meal when I am breading something. Since this is a potato dough, the potato chips give a nice, but untraditional crunch to the slishkas. You can also use corn flake crumbs, or any other type you like.


  • 2 c. instant potato flakes or buds
  • 2 c. boiling water (or very hot tap water)
  • 2 T. vegetable oil
  • 1/2 t. salt
  • 2 large eggs
  • 2 c. all-purpose white flour (preferably unbleached)

Alternately using Real Mashed Potatoes: 

  • 4 cups seasoned mashed potatoes with onions and butter
  • 2 extra-large eggs
  • 2 cups all-purpose white flour (preferably unbleached)


  • 2 T. butter, margarine, or vegetable oil
  • 1 c. fine bread crumbs
  • 1 c. finely ground potato chip crumbs

1. Put the potato flakes or buds into a large mixing bowl and add boiling water. Mix well to make stiff mashed potatoes.

2. Stir in the oil and salt and let mixture come to lukewarm stirring occasionally.

3. Beat in the eggs until they are completely combined.

4. Add the flour gradually while mixing at lowest speed.

5. Lightly knead the dough in the bowl for 1 to 2 minutes, or until it is springy. (At this point, if necessary, the dough can be covered well with plastic wrap and set aside for a short while, or it can be refrigerated overnight.)

6. Keeping the dough, your hands, and the surface well floured, roll the dough into ropes that are one-half to one-quarter inches thick.

7. Cut each rope with a floured knife into 1 to 1-1/2-inch-long pieces.

8. Gently drop the pieces of dough into a large pot of salted boiling water.

9. After they rise to the top, boil them, uncovered or partially covered for 4 to 8 minutes, or until they are chewy and firm, but not doughy. (Overcooking can make them gummy.)

10. Immediately remove them with a slotted spoon and drain them well. (If you use a steamer insert in your pot, you can just lift it out and let the slishkas drain in the insert.)

11. While the slishkas are cooking, prepare the crumb coating by melting the butter in a large skillet over medium heat and stirring in the crumbs until completely coated and hot.

12. Toss the slishkas in the buttered crumbs and serve. 


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A. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of proper cooking techniques by preparing the stuffed cabbage; thereby demonstrating that they know how to:

  1.  Season and mix together a meat mixture.
  2.  Peel and chop an onion.
  3.  Measure and combine ingredients.
  4.  Unwrap the cabbage leaves from the head.
  5.  Slice out the tough center rib of cabbage leaf in a “V” shape.
  6.  Form elongated meatballs from meat mixture.
  7.  Properly wrap the balls in the cabbage leaves.
  8.  Make the sweet and sour sauce.
  9.  Cook the cabbage in the sauce.
  10.  Prepare gingersnap cookie mix.
  11.  Finish making gingersnap cookies by adding wet ingredients.
  12.  Form and bake gingersnap cookies.

B. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of the historical and geographical origins of this dish by eventually completing the final Sample Test.



1. Although the recipe includes in the steps listed, the procedure for microwaving or boiling the head of cabbage, a considerable amount of time is saved if the head is cooked and cooled ahead of time so that it can be worked with immediately when needed.

2. The recipe for pareve gingersnaps is included because most of the commercial varieties available contain whey, a dairy ingredient. To save additional time, if necessary, the cookies can be made ahead and stored in an airtight tin for a few weeks, or frozen for long term storage. However, they are very quick, easy, and fun to make and the taste makes the effort worthwhile.

3. If the students are to sample the finished stuffed cabbage, a finished batch must be made ahead of time and can then be frozen in a foil tray, defrosted, and heated through, covered in the oven while the class proceeds.

4. One group of students can be preparing the gingersnap cookies while another works on the sauce, another works on the fried onion, and another works on the cabbage.


1. If you are doing the cabbage ahead, microwave on high power for 15 to 18 minutes to make sure that the head is cooked through to the center so that you will not encounter tough inner leaves at the last minute.

2. A faster way to make drop cookies than by dropping off a teaspoon is to load the dough into a pastry bag with a large, plain, round tip and squeeze small dollops of the dough onto the cookie sheet at regular intervals.


A. Depending upon the geographic backgrounds of their parents, the students may have different names for this dish. Discuss some of the names they are familiar with and try to establish what countries and towns their ancestors came from to contrast different names with differing geographic locations. A pre-World War II map of Eastern Europe may make the geography a little more concrete.


  • 2 lbs. ground meat (veal & beef mixture)
  • 1 large onion
  • 1/2 cup rice
  • 2 eggs
  • garlic powder
  • matzoh meal
  • olive oil
  • salt
  • black pepper
  • Heinz chili sauce
  • 1 can cranberry sauce
  • gingersnap cookies
  • cabbage
  • pre-made stuffed cabbage
  • large plastic bucket
  • long-tined fork
  • frying pan
  • 6-qt. pot and lid
  • large mixing spoon
  • food processor
  • knives
  • measuring spoons
  • measuring cups
  • can opener
For gingersnap cookies:
  • sugar
  • ground coriander
  • baking powder
  • ground ginger
  • ground cinnamon
  • salt
  • baking soda
  • ground cloves
  • all-purpose flour
  • pareve margarine
  • light unsulphured molasses
  • 2 eggs
  • non-stick coating spray
  • wire whisk
  • mixing bowl
  • 2 cookie sheets
  • pastry bag (optional)
  • teaspoons
  • cooling racks (optional)



“For many Ashkenazic Jews, stuffed cabbage in sweet-and-sour sauce is essential for Sukkot. It is just one of the many dishes that were developed in the shtetls of Eastern and Central Europe to transform an ordinarily mundane ingredient, such as cabbage, into a rich-tasting delicacy. At the same time, precious meat was stretched to serve a few more.

“This dish probably became traditional for Sukkot because cabbage is plentiful during the harvest season, and also ‘stuffed foods’ are customarily eaten on the holiday to symbolize abundance.

“Depending on the locale where they or their ancestors once lived, Jews have given stuffed cabbage many different appellations. Some of the more popular Ashkenazic ones include holishkes, holopches, praakes, and galuptzi. Sephardic Jews make a very similar type of stuffed cabbage, occasionally, using ground lamb instead of beef. Those from Turkey and nearby areas generally call the dish dolmas de col or yaprakis de kol. Middle Eastern Jews spice it differently, and sometimes call it sarmas or mishi malfouf.

“As with many other Jewish recipes that have been carried around the world, stuffed cabbage has innumerable variations.”13


  • 1 lb. ground veal
  • 1 lb. ground beef
  • 1 large onion, finely chopped
  • 1/2 cup uncooked long-grain white rice
  • 2 eggs, lightly beaten
  • 1 t. garlic powder
  • 2 T. matzoh meal
  • 2 T. olive oil
  • 1 t. salt
  • freshly ground black pepper
  • 1 jar Heinz chili sauce
  • 1 can jellied cranberry sauce
  • 14 Gingersnap cookies (See recipe that follows.)
  • 1 large head of cabbage

1. Mix together veal and beef in a large bowl with a long-tined fork. Add rice, eggs, garlic powder, matzoh meal, salt and black pepper and continue mixing until well-distributed. (Note: The fork is used to mix because handling the meat too much will compress it and make the meatballs tough.)

2. Fry the onions in olive oil at moderate heat until they are tender and translucent. Add to meat
mixture and stir in with fork. Refrigerate until ready to use.

3. Place cabbage with core on the bottom in a microwaveable glass bowl and fill the bowl with 1/2-inch of water. Cover tightly with plastic wrap and cook on high in microwave oven for about 10–15 minutes, depending on how large the cabbage is. (Note: this step could also be done by placing the cabbage whole into a pot of boiling water and boiling until tender. The microwave just gets the job done faster!) Undo the wrap carefully so the steam escapes without burning you. Drain the cabbage in a colander and run cold water over it to speed the cooling process. Let it stand until it is cool enough to handle.

4. Meanwhile, empty the jar of chili sauce into a 6-qt. pot. Put a little water in the jar, re-close, and shake to get out all the remaining sauce. Empty this into the pot. Open the cranberry sauce and carefully slide the contents of the can into the pot also. Fill the can with water and pour into the pot. Drop in the gingersnaps.

5. Take a large spoon and stir the contents of the pot, breaking up the cranberry sauce and ginger-snaps while cooking on a moderate heat.

6. With a small sharp knife, cut the core out of the cabbage and remove any tough outer leaves. Spread these leaves over the sauce once it starts to bubble and is well mixed. The stuffed cabbage will be placed on top of these so that the bottom ones will not stick to the bottom of the pot.

7. Carefully remove each leaf from the head of cabbage, trying not to break or tear and stack neatly. (If the cabbage is not cooked enough, the leaves are very difficult to remove this way because they are too brittle. If this is the case, put back into the microwave as before and cook a little longer.) Continue until you have removed all the leaves that are large enough to stuff.

8. Take each leaf and with a small, sharp knife, cut away the tough rib at the center by making a deep “V” incision.

9. Take a portion of the meat into your hand and form into a slightly elongated ball. Place this on the part of the leaf where you have just removed the rib and make sure the leaf is situated so that it curls up. Fold the leaf once over the meat and then fold in the sides. Roll up the rest of the leaf and place seam side down into the bubbling sauce.

10. Continue in this fashion until you run out of leaves or meat filling. Use center of cabbage and any extra leaves for another dish. (Cabbage borscht perhaps!)

11. Cook, covered on low heat for an hour. Then uncover and cook on low heat for another hour. Serve hot.

12. This is best made a day ahead to give the flavors a chance to merge, and also may be frozen and reheated.


  • 1 c. sugar
  • 4 t. ground coriander
  • 3-1/2 t. baking powder
  • 3 t. ground ginger
  • 2 t. ground cinnamon
  • 1 t. salt
  • 1/2 t. baking soda
  • 1/2 t. ground cloves
  • 4 c. all-purpose flour

1. Measure all the ingredients except flour into a large bowl and mix them with a whisk until the
mixture is completely uniform.

2. Add the flour and mix again until no streaks of the spice mixture can be seen.

3. Divide the mix into two batches (2-1/2 c. each) and store it airtight, at room temperature, in either plastic bags or jars.

  • 1/2 stick (4 T.) unsalted margarine, melted and cooled
  • 2/3 c. light unsulphured molasses
  • 2 eggs, beaten just until well mixed
  • 1/2 batch (2-1/2 c.) Ginger-Cookie Mix (see above)

1. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees. Grease two large cookie sheets.

2. Mix the margarine and the molasses thoroughly in a bowl, then mix in the beaten eggs. Stir in the mix, blending the dough just until the dry ingredients are well dampened.

3. Drop the dough by teaspoonfuls onto the baking sheets, leaving 2 inches between cookies. Bake the cookies in the preheated oven for 6 to 8 minutes, or until their centers are springy when pressed lightly with a finger.

4. Remove the cookies from the pans and cool them on racks. When the cookies are completely
cool, store them airtight. Makes about 4 dozen 2-1/2-inch cookies.


13Text from Gloria Kaufer Greene, The Jewish Holiday Cookbook: An International Collection of Recipes and Customs (Published in the United States by Times Books, a division of Random House, Inc., New York, and simultaneously in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto, 1985), p. 111.

14Recipe from Helen Witty and Elizabeth Schneider Colchie, Better Than Store-Bought (New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1979), pp. 245-246. 


Click here for additional photos.



A. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of proper cooking techniques by preparing the tzimmes; thereby demonstrating that they know how to:

  1. Peel and slice carrots.
  2. Peel and dice sweet potatoes.
  3. Peel and grate ginger.
  4. Peel and partially quarter an onion.
  5. Measure and combine ingredients.
  6. Make an einbren.

B. The students will demonstrate their knowledge of the origins, nutritional value, and significance of tzimmes and their understanding of the dual meaning of the Yiddish words by eventually completing the final Sample Test.



  1. Tzimmes cooks for a considerable length of time (approximately 1 hour, 15 minutes) so it is necessary to prepare one ahead of time so that the students can taste the finished result. Most of the time involved, however, simply requires letting the mixture simmer on the stove.
  2. The students are grouped for this recipe so that several activities can be taking place at one time. Once the peeling, grating, slicing, dicing, etc. have taken place, they may find that there is extra time while the dish is simmering. You may want to provide for additional reading or activities.
  3. If there are more than one class, the tzimmes prepared by the first one can then be sampled by the others and so on.


  1. It may be necessary to demonstrate on one carrot and one sweet potato the method for slicing and dicing to give the required-size pieces so that the students can have uniform-size pieces. 
  2. Fresh ginger can be a little tricky to peel and grate. A vegetable peeler will do the job and you must just keep at it to get into the irregular spaces. Little mini graters can be found in some cookware stores which are handy for grating citrus peels as well.
  3. When making the einbren, watch carefully while stirring the fat and flour combination because once it starts to turn brown, it burns very quickly and anything beyond brown will taste very bitter.


A. This may be a good time to initiate a discussion of the ill-effects of smoking and how beta-carotene may help prevent cancer. Of course, the best way to prevent cancer is not to start smoking in the first place!

B. Much of Jewish cooking has fallen out of favor in view of today's emphasis on low fat, low cholesterol, low salt diets. It would probably be interesting to see how much students are aware of what foods are good for them, and if they are aware, whether they actually try to eat those things that they perceive as healthy and avoid those things they perceive as unhealthy. Jewish cooking need not be full of saturated fat and salt. Like all good cooking, if one starts with good quality ingredients and prepares them with simplicity and an eye towards good health, many of our dishes, like this one, can be totally in line with healthy eating.


  • 2 lbs. carrots
  • 1 large onion
  • 2-1/2 lbs. orange sweet potatoes
  • 1 12-oz. box pitted prunes
  • fresh ginger
  • 1/2 c. honey
  • 1 lemon or reconstituted lemon juice
  • 1 stick butter or margarine
  • 1 c. flour
  • salt
  • small fine grater
  • several sharp knives
  • 6 vegetable peelers
  • 1 6-qt. pot
  • measuring spoons
  • measuring cups
  • small saucepan
  • foil lasagna-size pan
  • 1 made-up batch of tzimmes



The following article and accompanying recipe by Leslie Land appeared in the 
Food Section of the Philadelphia Inquirer dated Sunday, January 22, 1989:

A good-for-you sweet stew

“A sweet potato a day keeps the doctor away” may be hard to say trippingly on the tongue, but help is at hand. “A carrot a day” works out pretty well, is only slightly less accurate, and has the advantage of pointing up just why the old adage has changed.

It has changed because evidence is suggesting that eating fruits and vegetables rich in beta-carotene, the orange pigment converted by the body into Vitamin A, helps prevent many sorts of cancer, especially among smokers.

Scientists don’t yet know exactly how it works. They don't even know for sure that it works at all. But several studies of smokers have found links between high blood levels of beta-carotenes and lowered cancer risk.

Is it the beta-carotene itself or something else in those foods—Eat your vegetables!—that’s causing the good effect? Does it apply only to smokers? Stay tuned. A 10-year experiment using beta-carotene supplements and involving 22,000 doctors as subjects is currently being conducted. Meanwhile, the National Cancer Institute is urging everybody to consume lots of the right stuff (mentioned later in this story) just in case.

What could it hurt? More complex carbos, more fiber, more vitamins, less room for junk food. But after baked carrots and steamed carrots and carrot sticks, then what?

How about a nice tzimmes, probably the only dish in all of classic European Jewish cuisine that does not actively promote cardiac arrest? It contains both sweet potatoes and carrots, the Beta-Carotene Top Two, and more than most other dishes, it makes a statement. Colloquially speaking, to make a tzimmes is to make a fuss, a to-do, over something, and if occasion warrants, you can make a gahntze tzimmes, a really major big deal. To illustrate: Vitamin manufacturers are currently making a tzimmes about beta-carotene. Cholesterol, on the other hand has been a full-blown gahntze tzimmes for years.

There are many kinds of tzimmes. The most common ones contain beef brisket as well as vegetables, but many are meatless, as is the recipe that will be forthcoming. They can also be made of lima beans, or, as in the Balkans, from assorted dried fruits and rice. Prunes are often included but are not mandatory. The trait that unites these disparate dishes is sweetness; all are seasoned with sugar or honey. This connects tzimmes in Jewish custom to happy holidays and special meals. “You wouldn't have it on a Wednesday afternoon, for instance,” says my father.

OK, wait until Wednesday evening then. If you serve it with a big mess of greens, the flavors will balance wonderfully and you can call it a cross-cultural, soul-food health special; dandelions, kale and turnip greens are also rich in beta-carotenes.

This is a rich vegetable stew, sweet enough to be a tzimmes but much less sweet than the classics. It is un-classically enhanced with ginger but does retain the einbren, a thickening mixture of fat and flour that is the Jewish equivalent of Cajun roux. Einbren adds considerably to the flavor, and I can’t see making a big tzimmes over one teaspoon of fat per serving, but if you want to omit it, do so and cut down on the liquid so the finished dish isn't watery.

[The following recipe has been doubled for the purposes of this class and set forth in the usual format.]

A Small to Medium Tzimmes

  • 2 lbs. carrots
  • 1 large onion
  • 2-1/2 lbs. orange sweet potatoes
  • 1 12-oz. box pitted prunes
  • 1 T. fresh ginger
  • 1/4 c. honey
  • 2 T. lemon juice
  • 1/4 c. margarine, butter, or rendered chicken fat
  • 4 T. all-purpose flour
  • 1/2 t. salt

Group 1

 1. Cut off the very top and very bottom of each carrot and peel using a vegetable peeler. 

2. Slice into 1/2-inch thick slices.

Group 2

3. Peel the sweet potatoes using vegetable peelers and cut into I-inch dice.

Group 3

4. Peel an onion and cut it in four from tip to root as though you were going to quarter it, but stop about 1/2-inch from the bottom so the quarters don't separate.

5. Peel a “hand” of ginger and grate on small grater until you have a tablespoon of grated ginger.

Group 1

6. Place carrots and onion from Group 3 in a 6-qt. pot and add cold water to cover them by an inch or so.

7. Put the pan over high heat, bring to just under a boil, then reduce heat so the liquid simmers vigorously. Cook, shaking the pan from time to time to keep everything from sticking to the bottom for about 10 minutes, or until the carrots are almost tender when tested with the point of a knife.

Group 2

8. After the carrots have cooked for 10 minutes, add the potatoes, prunes, ginger, honey, and lemon juice and add a bit of hot water if necessary to bring the liquid level just under the top layer.

9. Cook 25 minutes more, or until the vegetables are completely tender and the liquid reduced by about half. Do not undercook; classic Jewish cuisine is not interested in al dente vegetables.

10. Remove and discard the onion.

Group 3

11. While the vegetables cook, melt the fat in a small saucepan over medium heat.

12. Add the flour and cook, stirring, until it is a nice nutty brown.

13. Whisk in a spoonful or two of broth to make a thinnish paste.

14. Continue to cook until the sauce is well-thickened.

15. Add salt, taste and adjust, adding honey if necessary to make the tzimmes distinctly sweet.

The dish may be served as is, but flavor and looks are improved if you turn it into a shallow pan and run it under a hot broiler for a few minutes to brown the top. Makes 12 servings.

According to a list published in the December 1988 Nutrition Action Health Letter, published by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, the following are highest in assorted carotenes (alpha and zeta, as well as beta). The Recommended Daily Allowance is 5,000 IU’s (international units). The doctors in the controlled study are taking 83,000 IU’s every other day. All numbers are for half-cup servings and all foods are cooked except where noted.


Sweet potatoes, 24,880 IU; raw carrots, 20,250, cooked carrots, 19,150; spinach, 7,370; butternut squash, 7,140; hubbard squash, 6,160; dandelion greens, 6,080; kale, 4,810; turnip greens, 3,960.

And so it goes. An apple a day? Apples certainly have their virtues, but they're at the bottom of this list with 74 IUs of carotenes.

Important warning: All of these good words are about beta-carotene. As far as anybody knows, it's just about impossible to overdose on beta-carotene. Vitamin A, however, can be toxic; the RDA is 5,000 IUs, all of which your body can make from beta-carotene.


1. Apples dipped in honey are eaten to symbolically express the hope for a sweet year during this holiday.
  • a. Tu B’Shevat
  • b. Purim
  • c. Shavuot
  • d. Rosh Hashanah
2. It is said that the seeds of this fruit number 613 which correspond to the number of mitzvoth, or Biblical commandments that Jews are obliged to fulfill.
  • a. blackberry
  • b. pineapple
  • c. strawberry
  • d. pomegranate
3. The seventh and last day of Sukkot is called...
  • a. Shemini Atzeret 
  • b. Hoshanah Rabbah 
  • c. Simhat Torah
  • d. Tisha B’Av
4. The second day of Shemini Atzeret has become a happy celebration because on this day, the final verses of the Torah are read in the synagogue and a new cycle of reading is begun anew at Genesis. This holiday is called...
  • a. Simhat Torah
  • b. Hoshanah Rabbah 
  • c. Sukkot
  • d. Tisha B’Av
5. During Shemini Atzeret it has become customary to say a solemn prayer for...
  • a. peace
  • b. a good harvest
  • c. rain
  • d. long life
6. The holiday “Rosh Hashanah Le’llanot,” or the “New Year of the Trees,” is also known as...
  • a. Rosh Hashanah
  • b. Tu B’Shevat
  • c. Shavuot
  • d. Yom Kippur
7. This fruit became popular in Eastern European shtetls during Tu B’Shevat because it was one of the few fruits from Israel that was available during mid-winter.
  • a. oranges
  • b. apples
  • c. carob
  • d. pomegranates
8. During this holiday, a seder is sometimes held to celebrate all the varieties of fruit that are produced by trees.
  • a. Pesach
  • b. Passover
  • c. Tisha B'Av
  • d. Tu B’Shevat
9. Cheese blintzes are eaten on this holiday because they are dairy and look like the two tablets of the Ten Commandments.
  • a. Shavuot
  • b. Sukkot
  • c. Simhat Torah
  • d. Yom Kippur
10. The end of the barley harvest and the offering of the first fruit at the Temple in Jerusalem were reasons for the celebration of this holiday.
  • a. Sukkot
  • b. Shavuot
  • c. Pesach
  • d. Hanukkah
11. During Shavuot, it is customary to eat...
  • a. new fruit
  • b. meat
  • c. dairy products
  • d. eggs
12. The most important Jewish holiday is...
  • a. Shabbat
  • b. Yom Kippur
  • c. Rosh Hashanah
  • d. Pesach
13. The holiday that is mentioned in the Ten Commandments.
  • a. Yom Kippur
  • b. Shabbat
  • c. Pesach
  • d. Shavuot
14. Two of these are traditional for a Shabbat meal to commemorate the giving of two portions of manna in the desert before Shabbat.
  • a. candles
  • b. blessings
  • c. glasses of wine
  • d. challot
15. The name eir kichlah, which are light, crunchy cookies is in what language?
  • a. Yiddish
  • b. Hebrew
  • c. Spanish
  • d. Ladino
16. Jews who speak Yiddish are of this background.
  • a. Sephardic
  • b. Israeli
  • c. Ashkenazic
  • d. Middle Eastern
17. Jews that have Turkish or Greek backgrounds are...
  • a. Sephardic
  • b. Ashkenazic
  • c. Yiddish
  • d. Ladino
18. The evil minister of the king in ancient Persia was...
  • a. Ahasueras
  • b. Mordechai
  • c. Cain
  • d. Haman
19. The Jewish queen who risked her life to save her people was...
  • a. Vashti
  • b. Esther
  • c. Ruth
  • d. Deborah
20. In Israel, a carnival called Ad’lo’yada takes place to celebrate this holiday.
  • a. Sukkot
  • b. Tu B’Shevat
  • c. Simhat Torah
  • d. Purim
21. Special triangular cookies that are eaten during the holiday of Purim are...
  • a. eir kichlah
  • b. egg bow ties
  • c. hamantashen
  • d. madeleines
22. The scroll that tells the story about the holiday of Purim is...
  • a. the Torah
  • b. the Haggadah
  • c. the Megillah
  • d. the Talmud
23. Purim takes place during the Hebrew month of...
  • a. Adar
  • b. Shevat
  • c. Sivan
  • d. Av
24. In English, kasha is called
  • a. whole wheat
  • b. buckwheat groats
  • c. millet
  • d. hominy
25. Kasha is a...
  • a. grain
  • b. herb
  • c. fruit
  • d. root
26. A small Eastern European community was called
  • a. ghetto
  • b. commune
  • c. shtetl
  • d. châteaux
27. Russian and Polish Jews are…
  • a. Sephardic
  • b. Ashkenazi
  • c. Ladino
  • d. Middle Eastern
28. The festive meal that is enjoyed during Purim is called a
  • a. Seudah
  • b. Seder
  • c. Megillah
  • d. Mishloah Manot
29. People who prepared knishes came from a background that was...
  • a. Ashkenazic
  • b. Sephardic
  • c. Middle Eastern
  • d. American
30. Knishes are sold during the Ad’lo’yada carnival in...
  • a. New Orleans
  • b. Athens
  • c. New York
  • d. Tel-Aviv
31. The holiday of Shavuot is also known as...
  • a. Hag Ha’Katzir
  • b. Hag Ha’Bikurim
  • c. Zeman Matan Torahtenu
  • d. all of these
32. Shavuot is celebrated immediately following the seven-week period during which the _______ is/are counted.
  • a. tithe
  • b. omer
  • c. trees
  • d. bikurim
33. Pentecost is a Greek word meaning...
  • a. fifty
  • b. seven weeks
  • c. lots
  • d. law
34. Triangular, filled noodle dumplings are called...
  • a. hamantashen
  • b. eir kichlah
  • c. kasha varnishkes 
  • d. kreplach
35. The Jewish people are divided into three groups—Levite, Israelite, and...
  • a. Ashkenazim
  • b. Sephardim
  • c. Kohenim
  • d. Orthodox
36. An ultra-orthodox area of Jerusalem is called..
  • a. Tel-Aviv
  • b. The Old City 
  • c. Mea Shearim
  • d. Ramat Gan
37. Lukschen is a Yiddish word which means...
  • a. noodles
  • b. pudding
  • c. cheese
  • d. milk
38. The Yiddish word mandlen means...
  • a. bread
  • b. almonds
  • c. nuts
  • d. sprinkle
39. Another name for mandel bread is...
  • a. hamantashen
  • b. eir kichlah
  • c. kugel
  • d. kamish bread
40. In Yiddish, the rendered fat from geese, ducks, or chicken is called...
  • a. lukschen
  • b. schmaltz
  • c. latkes
  • d. kreplach
41. In Yiddish, the cracklings of skin that remain after rendering fat are called...
  • a. schmaltz
  • b. latkes
  • c. gribbenes
  • d. mandlen
42. Potato latkes, along with other foods fried in oil are traditional for which holiday?
  • a. Purim
  • b. Shavuot
  • c. Hanukkah
  • d. Pesach
43. If potatoes are grated and then are left to sit for a long time, they...
  • a. fry better
  • b. turn dark
  • c. dry out
  • d. taste better
44. Buttery, crumb-coated potato dumplings, also known as gnocchi in Italy are also called...
  • a. latkes
  • b. gribbenes
  • c. slishkas
  • d. kugel
45. Stuffed cabbage is also known as...
  • a. holopches
  • b. praakes
  • c. galuptzi
  • d. all of these
46. Stuffed foods, in general, including stuffed cabbage are traditional for this holiday.
  • a. Purim
  • b. Sukkot
  • c. Shavuot
  • d. Rosh Hashanah
47. In Yiddish, a sweet stew that has carrots and sweet potatoes as the main ingredients is called...
  • a. tzimmes
  • b. kugel
  • c. einbren
  • d. gahntze
48. An einbren is made with..
  • a. carrots
  • b. flour and fat
  • c. potatoes
  • d. sugar and honey
49. In Yiddish, the expression used to describe a major big deal is…
  • a. Ad’lo’yada
  • b. mishi malfouf
  • c. gahntze tzimmes
  • d. mandlen
50. The orange pigment that is found in carrots and sweet potatoes is...
  • a. Cajun roux
  • b. vitamin A
  • c. beta-carotene
  • d. cholesterol


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Eban, Abba. My People: Abba Eban's History of the Jews, Volume I. New York: Behrman House, Inc., 1978.

Engle, Fannie, and Blair, Gertrude. The Jewish Festival Cookbook. New York: Paperback Library, Inc., 1954.

Gersh, Harry, et al. When a Jew Celebrates. New York: Behrman House, Inc., 1971.

Goodman, Hanna. Jewish Cooking Around the World. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1969.

Greene, Gloria Kaufer. The Jewish Holiday Cookbook: An International Collection Of Recipes and Customs. New York: Times Books, 1985.

Kaunfer, Marcia Lapidus. Holidays for the Dalet Year. New York: The Melton Graded Curriculum Series of The Melton Research Center of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1985.

Kolatch, Alfred J. The Jewish Book of Why. Middle Village: Jonathan David Publishers, Inc., 1981.

Lebeau, James M. The Jewish Dietary Laws: Sanctify Life. New York: Youth Commission, United Synagogue of America, 1983.

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Welcome to Bubbie’s Kitchen

     An integral part of Jewish life in America involves the preparation of foods that are eaten by the family together in an atmosphere of ...